First report of Berkeleyomyces basicola causing mango root rot and decline in India

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First report of Berkeleyomyces basicola causing mango root rot and decline in India

Mango wilt has been a severe constraint in mango (Mangifera indica L.) manufacturing in a number of nations together with India (Shukla et al. 2018). Though, a number of fungal pathogens have been reported related to the illness, species of Ceratocystis, Verticillium and Lasiodiplodia have been discovered predominantly chargeable for the wilt (Shukla et al. 2018). A twenty-seven-year outdated mango tree cv. Dashehari at Rehmankhera, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India suffered sudden wilt (Fig. 1A) throughout February 2020. Although, signs have been just like Ceratocystis wilt, no gummosis was noticed on trunk or branches which occurred within the majority of Ceratocystis fimbriata contaminated timber. The contaminated roots of the wilted tree exhibited darkish brown to black discoloration in woody parts (Fig. 1B). Severely affected roots have been utterly rotten.

 

Related signs of root an infection have been noticed in a further 16 declining timber inside an orchard of 120 timber whole (Fig. 2). The contaminated laborious wooden samples from dwell roots of 16 declining and one wilted timber have been utilized for isolation by putting stem tissue of discolored and regular coloured tissue on floor sterilized contemporary carrot discs positioned in a moisture chamber (Fig. 1C) for 10 days. Out of 17 tree samples, isolates of Berkeleyomyces basicola (Berk. & Broome) W.J. Nel, Z.W. de Beer, T.A. Duong, M.J. Wingf. (Nel et al. 2018) obtained from 1 wilted and 9 declining timber have been transferred to and maintained in pure tradition on potato dextrose agar. Isolates have been grown for 7 to 10 days at 23±1 °C temperature at the hours of darkness. The isolates have been characterised by a greyish black compact mycelial colony (Fig. 1D). Two kinds of spores, endoconidia (phialospores) and chlamydospores (aleuriospores or amylospores) have been noticed below microscope. The endoconidia have been hyaline, cylindrical in form with 10 to 42 × Three to six μm (n=50) in measurement (Fig. 1E). Chains of darkish coloured chlamydospores (Three to 7 spores in chain) of 24 to 52 × 10 to 12 μm (n=50) measurement have been obvious (Fig. 1E&F).

 

Molecular identification of the fungus remoted from the wilted tree was established by amplifying the ITS1-5.eight rDNA-ITS2 area of fungal genomic DNA and the set of ITS primers (ITS 1 and ITS4) (White et al. 1990) adopted by sequencing. The sequence has been submitted to the NCBI database vide accession quantity MT786402. The current isolate (MT786402) shared >99 p.c nucleotide similarity with different B. basicola isolates. The phylogenetic tree was constructed utilizing the ITS1-5.eight rDNA-ITS2 sequences of different B. basicola isolates and different Thielaviopsis spp., C. fimbriata, Chalaropsis thielavioides by neighbor becoming a member of methodology utilizing MEGAX software program (Fig. 3) (Kumar et al. 2018). The current isolate fashioned a definite cluster together with different B. basicola isolates in a separate clade. Koch’s postulate was carried out below a clear polycarbonate sheet roof internet home at 14.four and 42.2 °C minimal and most temperatures, respectively.

A 100 ml macerated tradition suspension consisting of 1000 chlamydospores and endoconidia per ml suspension was inoculated within the rhizosphere of mango seedlings planted in sterilized soil stuffed in earthen pots, utilizing ten replicates for inoculated and uninoculated vegetation. Signs of necrotic root tissue have been noticed 90 days after inoculation and have been in keeping with these noticed within the area. The identical fungus was re-isolated from contaminated roots and id was confirmed. All management vegetation remained symptom-free and B. basicola was not remoted from the roots. Thus, we conclude that B. basicola is able to inflicting root rot illness of mango. To the most effective of our data that is the primary report of B. basicola inflicting mango root rot and decline throughout the globe, hitherto unreported.

The extent of the basis necrosis signs related to mature mango timber demonstrates the potential virulence of B. basicola, though its pathogenicity threat on wholesome mature timber remains to be unknown. Nevertheless, the potential for extreme losses to the mango trade in world primary mango producer nation, India can’t be dominated out, if discovered widespread.

First report of Berkeleyomyces basicola causing mango root rot and decline in India
First report of Berkeleyomyces basicola causing mango root rot and decline in India

Sugarcane cystatins: From discovery to biotechnological functions

Phytocystatins are tight-binding cysteine protease inhibitors produced by vegetation. The primary phytocystatin described was remoted from Oryza sativa and, since then, cystatins from a number of plant species have been reported, together with from sugarcane. Sugarcane cystatins have been unraveled in Sugarcane EST undertaking database, after sequencing of cDNA libraries from numerous sugarcane tissues at totally different developmental levels and 6 sugarcane cystatins have been cloned, expressed and characterised (CaneCPI-1 to CaneCPI-6).
These recombinant proteins have been produced in numerous expression techniques and inhibited a number of cysteine proteases, together with human cathepsins B and L, which might be concerned in pathologies, reminiscent of most cancers. On this evaluation, we summarize a complete historical past of all sugarcane cystatins, presenting an up to date phylogenetic evaluation; chromosomal localization, and genomic group.
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We additionally current protein docking of CaneCPI-5 within the lively website of human cathepsin B, insights about canecystatins buildings; recombinant expression in numerous techniques, comparability of their inhibitory actions towards human cysteine cathepsins B, Ok, L, S, V, falcipains from Plasmodium falciparum and a cathepsin L-like from the sugarcane weevil Sphenophorus levis; and enlighten their potential and present functions in agriculture and well being.

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